The approach is similar to using a VPN: you request the data via a different server, a proxy. However, it is far less secure and reliable. If you use free proxies available on the Web, they are often malfunctioning. Many resources ban them. Also, using such proxies does not involve encryption, and you are still unprotected. One more frequent problem is that connecting via proxy slows the Internet down. It is much safer to turn to a decent VPN provider.
Tor browser is a popular option that is similar to VPN in some ways. It also can change your IP address and encrypt the data. You launch that browser and use it to surf. But it is not the most intuitive solution – you will take time poking around in configuration. Then, Tor can slow your Internet speed down. The transparency that a reliable VPN service ensures is insufficient either.
This method can be efficient if you operate within a network having a list of forbidden URLs to block access to them selectively. In this case, a URL shortener turns the URL of such a forbidden resource into a new one, and the network filters may allow it. The main drawback of this approach is that it works with some simple systems only. Most filters are more advanced. VPN is a much more efficient solution.